Forest

Forest

A precious and delicate resource which is a monopoly of our planet earth, which differentiates earth from other planets. Forests are called with love as the lungs of earth. It regulates the oxygen ratio, humidity and the most hot-topic, the world’s temperature.
The word forest is derived from the latin roots ‘foris’ which cites the outer boundary of village. It refers to a vast land covered by trees, shrubs, herbs and grass – which feeds and support a wide variety of living organisms. The total forest and plant cover of the country is 78.92 million hectare, which is 24 percent of the geographical area of the country. An extremely complex biodiversity in the forest forms a chain of food to the animal kingdom like different organisms depend on each other

Forests are categorized into tropical, temperate and coniferous. The trio supports vivid flora and fun as they thrive in different climatic conditions, making each unique from one another.
There are different types of forests which can be seen in different parts of the world. Though they may be different, they generally perform the same ecological functions. These include,
1.	Tropical evergreen forests
2.	Tropical deciduous forests
3.	Tropical thorn and shrub forest
4.	Mangrove forest
Forests may be of different shapes, size and names. But the inner meaning and importance of each and every forest remain the same 
They help us to breathe, they are the home to nearly half the planet’s species, they keep us cool, they help preventing flooding and soil erosion, they protect the ecosystem, they help refilling aquifers, they muffle up noise pollution, Forest provides rare and exotic medicinal products, gum, latex, hone, wax, oil, spices, bones as valuable sources for many products. Trees in the forest provide oxygen to the animals and animals provide carbon dioxide to the trees and plants. This cycle of exchanging gases balances the atmosphere in the forest, thus called the green lung. They help to control and prevent global warming and alarming rate of climatic change.
The humus arising from the dead and decay of micro creatures when mixed with the soil, increases the fertility of the soil. It also soothes the extremities of climate conditions by reducing the heat in the summers and the cold in winters. Nearly 25% of the total population depends directly on the forests for livelihood. They are home to 80% of the land animals. 

Environmental activists and lovers are trying to protect the mother nature by arranging campaigns on afforestation and promote planting trees. It is valid to reconstruct earth before reconstructing other planets to be habitable. 

Indian Laws Protecting Forests
•	Indian forests act, 1927 defines the parameters to mark any forest area as protected forest, reserved forest, rules to levy tax on forest produce etc., It also states the punishments and taxes for the offences committed inside the forest area. This act is very important and was amended to remove bamboo from the “tree ” category in 2017.
•	The wildlife protection act. 1972 made lists of scheduled plants and animals and described the economic activity allowed with respect to each of them and the status of protection.